If you haven't read Folk Socks, you're missing out! This is the old edition, but there's a new one out there. It starts with four chapters about the history of socks, with a focus on Great Britain and Europe, and ends with 18 patterns. It's a great resource.
All of the socks are knit from the top down, but there are a few different heels and toes used. Also, the colorwork and texture of the socks in the book are amazing.